why java records aren’t quite immutable

A new type called a “record” was previewed in Java 14 and released in Java 16. One of the benefits is that it creates immutable objects. Kind of.

An immutable record

This is record is an immutable object. Since it is a record, it is automatically final and has no setters. All is good.

public record Book (String title, int numPages) { }

A mutable record

There there is this record. Do you see why it is mutable?

public record Book (String title, int numPages, List<String> chapters) { }

The problem is that records use shallow immutability. The caller can’t change the “chapters” object to a different reference. The caller can change the values in the “chapters” to their heart’s content. That means this object is still mutable.

Here’s an example showing that the code prints [1, 2, 3] and therefore changes the list of chapters.

List<String> chapters = new ArrayList<>();

Book book = new Book("Breaking and entering", 289, chapters);


Making the record actually be immutable

It’s pretty easy to make the Book record actually be mutable. In fact, it only requires three extra lines! Records have a compact constructor which takes care of the setting fields for you. However, you can choose to change that behavior. In this example, I rely on the default set of “title” and “numPages”. However, for “chapters”, I choose to make an immutable copy to prevent changing the list.

public record Book (String title, int numPages, List<String> chapters) {

    public Book {
        chapters = List.copyOf(chapters);

Now the test program fails with an UnsupportedOperationException. Much better. A real immutable record.

Happy Book Birthday! OCP Java 11 Practice Tests Now Shipping!

Jeanne and I are ecstatic to announce our new book, OCP Java 11 Practice Tests, is now shipping! It’s the first book in print custom written for the new 1Z0-819 Java 11 Certification Exam as well as the 1Z0-817 Java 11 Upgrade Exam.

Want to become Java 11 Certified but not sure where to start? Purchase our new Java 11 Practice Tests book along with our Java 11 Complete Study Guide, now available as The Java 11 Complete Certification Kit. While Oracle restructured the 1Z0-815 and 1Z0-816 Exams into the 1Z0-819 Exam, the material is almost identical (see this post for more details), making the Java 11 Complete Study Guide along with our new Java 11 Practice Tests Book the best source of material for learning everything you need to become a Java 11 Certified Professional!

Like our previous books, we will post any updates or notes on this blog’s Java 11 Practice Tests Book page.

A special thanks to all of our friends and family that helped write this book in the midst of the global pandemic. It’s been a challenging year and we couldn’t have done it without your support!

Update: Java 11 Practice Tests

Jeanne and I know many of our readers are anxiously awaiting their copy of our new Java OCP 11 Practice Test Book for the 1Z0-819 Exam, originally expected out this month. The good news is we finished the manuscript a few months ago, so the book is done! The bad news is, the publishing and printing process has been slower than expected given everything going on in the world.

We now expect the book to be available in late January/early February. Believe us, no one is more anxious for this book than us! If you purchase the book from Amazon or other resellers, it will ship as soon as it is available!

Oh, and a big thanks to all our readers this year, whose feedback and support has kept us going in these strange times!